Reading difficulties impact students' achievement across all subject areas and can cause increasing challenges at higher grade levels. Recognizing when students are struggling with reading in the early grades allows teachers to provide the necessary support that will help them succeed in the long run. 

Response to Intervention (RtI) is a formal system of detection, prevention, and support designed to help struggling elementary school students before they fall behind. RtI begins with high-quality classroom instruction and provides targeted, intensive interventions to students who struggle with specific skills or concepts.

In order to be effective, RtI in reading requires universal screening at the beginning and middle of the school year to identify potential reading problems, organized instruction that allows for progress monitoring and differentiated lessons based on students' skills and needs, and systemic skill instruction for students receiving intensive interventions. The training and support for proper engagement of these strategies needs to come from a systemwide RtI Implementation framework.

To learn more about the research underlying these practices, view the IES Practice Guide, Assisting Students Struggling With Reading: Response to Intervention (RtI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades.

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Screening Tools Chart

This chart from the National Center on Response to Intervention (NCRTI) identifies screening tools by content area and rates each tool based on classification accuracy, generalizability,...

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06/20/2014
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Schoolwide Screening: Guidelines, Resources, Example

The RtI manual produced by the National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD) includes a schoolwide screening section that outlines the features of universal screening, describes its...

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06/20/2014
702 views

Screening Decision Rules

This graphic illustrates an RtI early identification process conducted in Oregon schools. Decision rules for reading in kindergarten and grades 1 through 5, Spanish literacy, and behavior are...

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06/20/2014
707 views

Universal Screening—Establishing District Benchmarks

This 2009 PowerPoint presentation by Dr. Heistad, Executive Director of Research, Evaluation and Assessment for the Minneapolis Public Schools, describes universal screening measures, clarifies...

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06/20/2014
685 views

School Leadership Team Process

Download a team process outline and data forms used by RtI teams in Oregon schools to identify students and plan interventions. The file review worksheet helps staff organize data. Listen to the...

Sample Material
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06/20/2014
598 views
Creating a Building-Level Team

Creating a Building-Level Team

An elementary school principal describes what is needed to create an effective RtI leadership team. Team responsibilities at this school include data collection, data interpretation, and...

School Example
Audio
06/20/2014
391 views
The Power of Data

The Power of Data

An experienced principal talks about the significance of data for planning instruction, importance of using grade-level common assessments to enable staff collaboration, and the role of...

School Example
Audio
06/20/2014
409 views

Screening and Intervention Record Forms

Download the screening forms used by RtI data teams in Pennsylvania schools to record student performance, goals, targeted skills, instructional strategies, and decisions made regarding student...

Sample Material
Document
06/20/2014
1269 views
Conducting Universal Screening

Conducting Universal Screening

A literacy coach at an elementary school discusses the purpose, scheduling, and administration of universal screening. She explains how the use of screening data has changed instruction at this...

School Example
Video
06/20/2014
995 views
How RtI Changes Special Education

How RtI Changes Special Education

Dr. Tilly traces some of the major changes that have occurred in special education practice in Iowa as a result of RtI implementation. He describes the RtI influence on the process of diagnosing...

Expert Interview
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06/20/2014
552 views
The Phases of RtI Implementation

The Phases of RtI Implementation

Dr. David Tilly shares lessons from the experiences of several decades providing technical assistance to help districts and schools in Iowa implement RtI frameworks. He describes the activities at...

Expert Interview
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06/20/2014
470 views
Response to Intervention: Framework in Reading

Response to Intervention: Framework in Reading

Watch this brief overview to learn how Response to Intervention (RtI) systems are designed to identify students potentially at risk in reading and then provide them with the support they need to...

Overview
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06/20/2014
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