A strong understanding of fractions is essential for student success in algebra and more advanced math courses, and the earlier this foundation is built the better. Unfortunately, many students in the U.S. struggle with basic fractions concepts and face increased challenges as the concepts get more complex.

To effectively close the gaps in students' fractions knowledge, K-3 teachers should begin fractions instruction using students' informal understandings of sharing and proportion as the basis for formal instruction of basic fraction concepts. They should also ensure that students understand fractions as numbers in the rational number system and have strong proportional reasoning that will support them in performing operations with fractions.

To learn more about the research underlying these practices, view the IES Practice Guide, Developing Effective Fractions Instruction for Kindergarten Through 8th Grade.

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Planning for Real-World Problems for Ratio, Rate, Proportion

This planning tool helps middle-grade teachers develop practice problems based in real-world contexts that require students to work with ratios, rates, and proportions. Related Media and...

Tool
Document
03/17/2014
1047 views

Analyzing Student Work: Ratios

Math coaches can use this analysis tool to help teachers review student work with ratios and determine what concepts and procedures students have grasped and where they may be...

Tool
Document
03/17/2014
1066 views

Learning Together About Teaching Rations and Proportional Reasoning

This workshop allows math coaches to provide teachers with information on instructional strategies related to ratios, rates, and proportions. Related Media and Files: Focus on Ratios...

Tool
Document
03/17/2014
583 views

Ratio, Rate, and Proportion Problems

This collection of twelve ratio, rate, and proportion problems was contributed by expert Dr. Jim Lewis and includes his comments on solutions and notes about the potential difficulties students may...

Sample Material
Document
03/16/2014
962 views

Ratio Problems

Participants in the Understanding Ratios development session worked with this set of problems to strengthen their conceptual understandings. See Focus on Ratios for additional...

Sample Material
Document
03/16/2014
722 views

Focus on Ratios

This PowerPoint outlines the content of a development session for math coaches and teachers on teaching ratios, rates, and proportions. Understanding Ratios shows a portion of the workshop in which...

Sample Material
Document
03/16/2014
665 views

Build a Cafe: PowerPoint and Report

As seen in Cross-Multiply? Not So Fast, this PowerPoint presents a series of real-world problems that students need to solve using their knowledge of ratios. Related Media and...

Sample Material
Document
03/16/2014
771 views

Build-Up Strategies Worksheet

This worksheet provides practice problems that encourage students to use build-up strategies when working on ratio problems as shown in Cross-Multiply? Not So Fast. Related Media and...

Sample Material
Document
03/16/2014
740 views

Ratio: Warm Up Activity

Students use counters or blocks to work out their responses to three problems and then represent their answers as shown in Cross-Multiply? Not So Fast. Related Media and...

Sample Material
Document
03/16/2014
1664 views
Understanding Ratios

Understanding Ratios

This development session for teachers and coaches demonstrates strategies for teaching ratio, rate, and proportion concepts. Follow the full session through the PowerPoint, Focus on Ratios, and the...

School Example
Video
03/16/2014
317 views
Cross-Multiply? Not So Fast

Cross-Multiply? Not So Fast

Eighth-grade co-teachers lead a class through activities involving ratios. Students use concrete materials, build-up strategies, and cross-multiplication to solve the real-world problems found in...

School Example
Video
03/16/2014
407 views
Ratio, Rate, Proportion Problems

Ratio, Rate, Proportion Problems

Dr. Lewis demonstrates how to work through two examples of problems involving ratios. Related Files: Ratio, Rate, and Proportion Problems (Sample Material)

Expert Interview
Video
03/16/2014
269 views
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